There was enormous discontent with Russia's involvement in the war, and many were calling for an end to it.  Castro's movement sought "political democracy, political and economic nationalism, agrarian reform, industrialization, social security, and education. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. That the order came from the top has long been believed, although there is a lack of hard evidence. Victorious, they reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. Nevertheless, by the end of 1916, morale among soldiers was even worse than it had been during the great retreat of 1915. 25 February], virtually every industrial enterprise in Petrograd had been shut down, together with many commercial and service enterprises. Russian Revolution: The first revolution in human history to successfully install communist government, the Russian Revolution occurred in 1917. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers resulted in many more labor riots and strikes. On the centennial of the start of the Russian Revolution, explore about the tumultuous events of 1917 as witnessed by Americans … Bolshevik resolution on the government wins majority vote in Moscow Soviet. Several revolts were initiated against the Bolsheviks and their army near the end of the war, notably the Kronstadt Rebellion. Sailors and soldiers, along with Petrograd workers, took to the streets in violent protest, calling for "all power to the Soviets". There were two Russian Revolutions in 1917. The war was fought mainly between the Red Army ("Reds"), consisting of the uprising majority led by the Bolshevik minority, and the "Whites" – army officers and cossacks, the "bourgeoisie", and political groups ranging from the far Right, to the Socialist Revolutionaries who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks following the collapse of the Provisional Government, to the Soviets (under clear Bolshevik dominance). Lenin was of the opinion that taking power should occur in both St. Petersburg and Moscow simultaneously, parenthetically stating that it made no difference which city rose up first, but expressing his opinion that Moscow may well rise up first. Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy and a sense of duty to the country. , To quell the riots, the Tsar looked to the army. ", Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. and Mark D. Steinberg, Gatrell, Peter. The Chinese Communist Revolution began in 1946 and was part of the ongoing Chinese Civil War. However, Lenin played a crucial role in the debate in the leadership of the Bolshevik party for a revolutionary insurrection as the party in the autumn of 1917 received a majority in the soviets. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital, Saint Petersburg, swelled from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth.  Since the fall of Communism (and the USSR) in Russia in 1991, the Western-Totalitarian view has again become dominant and the Soviet-Marxist view has practically vanished. Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party led the Russian revolution of 1917. The Kornilov Affair failed largely due to the efforts of the Bolsheviks, whose influence over railroad and telegraph workers proved vital in stopping the movement of troops.  Leon Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world revolution. Strikers in Petrograd protest at the deaths in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk. [nb 2], The social causes of the Russian Revolution can be derived from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I. "Doklad petrogradskogo okhrannogo otdeleniia osobomu otdelu departamenta politsii" ["Report of the Petrograd Okhrana to the Special Department of the Department of the Police"], October 1916, Krasnyi arkhiv 17 (1926), 4–35 (quotation 4). The poor conditions only aggravated the situation, with the number of strikes and incidents of public disorder rapidly increasing in the years shortly before World War I. The Bolshevik party took total control of the government, and introduced a new form ofabsolutism. Strikes increased steadily from the middle of 1915, and so did crime, but, for the most part, people suffered and endured, scouring the city for food. Main article: October Revolution. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. As the counter revolutionary White movement gathered force, leading to full-scale civil war by the summer, the Romanovs were moved during April and May 1918 to Yekaterinburg, a militant Bolshevik stronghold. Whereas, in February 1917, the Bolsheviks were limited to only 24,000 members, by September 1917 there were 200,000 members of the Bolshevik faction. He did so on 15 March [O.S. Students, white-collar workers, and teachers joined the workers in the streets and at public meetings. 26 February], when the Tsar ordered the army to suppress the rioting by force, troops began to revolt. The execution may have been carried out on the initiative of local Bolshevik officials, or it may have been an option pre-approved in Moscow should White troops approach Yekaterinburg. There were great shortages of food and supplies, which was difficult to remedy because of the wartime economic conditions. This issue is subject to conflicting views on the communist history by various Marxist groups and parties. Nicholas nominated his brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, to succeed him. French and German Social Democrats had voted in favour of their respective governments' war efforts. The uprising began on 24 October and Kerensky, the … , It was these views of Martov that predominated in a manifesto drawn up by Leon Trotsky (at the time a Menshevik) at a conference in Zimmerwald, attended by 35 Socialist leaders in September 1915. The new communist government created the country of the Soviet Union. Although many ordinary Russians joined anti-German demonstrations in the first few weeks of the war, hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the Tsar or the government.. Although return to Russia had become a possibility, the war made it logistically difficult. This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, being replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities who had little loyalty to the Tsar. Most importantly, workers living in cities were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order. The July Days confirmed the popularity of the anti-war, radical Bolsheviks, but their unpreparedness at the moment of revolt was an embarrassing gaffe that lost them support among their main constituent groups: soldiers and workers. Communist symbolism is perhaps the most notable of this time period, such as the debut of the iconic hammer and sickle as a representation of the October Revolution in 1917, eventually becoming the official symbol of the USSR in 1924. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods they had never seen in villages. [nb 1], Workers also had good reasons for discontent: overcrowded housing with often deplorable sanitary conditions, long hours at work (on the eve of the war, a 10-hour workday six days a week was the average and many were working 11–12 hours a day by 1916), constant risk of injury and death from poor safety and sanitary conditions, harsh discipline (not only rules and fines, but foremen's fists), and inadequate wages (made worse after 1914 by steep wartime increases in the cost of living).  The Bolshevik Central Committee drafted a resolution, calling for the dissolution of the Provisional Government in favor of the Petrograd Soviet. The main problems were food shortages and rising prices. A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917, A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917. The revolt, however, was disowned by Lenin and the Bolshevik leaders and dissipated within a few days. "Kornilov mutiny". Russian … Revolutionary tribunals were present during both the Revolution and the Civil War, intended for the purpose of combatting forces of counter-revolution. They also established Soviet power in the newly independent republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine. China's current leaders retain that Mao "developed the theory of revolutionary socialism" whilst reformer Deng Xiopeng "developed the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants and substantial inequality of land ownership, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land. Few events in historical research have been as conditioned by political influences as the October Revolution. 42% worked in 100–1,000 worker enterprises, 18% in 1–100 worker businesses (in the US, 1914, the figures were 18, 47 and 35 respectively).. However, a Bolshevik force under Mikhail Frunze destroyed the Makhnovist movement, when the Makhnovists refused to merge into the Red Army. Russian Revolution who’s who – revolutionaries Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) was a left-wing political leader who vied with Lenin for control of Russia during the tumultuous months of 1917. While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom in 1861, they still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked. Russian troops stopped retreating, and there were even some modest successes in the offensives that were staged that year, albeit at great loss of life. One year later, the Tsar and his entire family were executed. Russia was backward, but not that backward, with a working class population of more than some 4-5% of the population. Indeed, a revolutionary wave lasted until 1923. They soon relocated the national capital to Moscow. Recognising the strength of the Bolsheviks, Lenin began pressing for the immediate overthrow of the Kerensky government by the Bolsheviks. The Russian Revolution has been portrayed in or served as backdrop for many films. According to Edvard Radzinsky and Dmitrii Volkogonov, the order came directly from Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov in Moscow. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. Rampant discontent lowered morale, which was further undermined by a series of military defeats. Petersburg and Moscow behind the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries, by September the Bolsheviks were in the majority in both cities. (On arrival back in Russia, these soldiers were either imprisoned or sent straight back into the front.). Heavy military losses were being suffered on the front. Change was facilitated by the physical movement of growing numbers of peasant villagers who migrated to and from industrial and urban environments, but also by the introduction of city culture into the village through material goods, the press, and word of mouth. When it became clear that the Bolsheviks had little support outside of the industrialized areas of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, they simply barred non-Bolsheviks from membership in the Soviets. On the way to Russia, Lenin prepared the April Theses, which outlined central Bolshevik policies. The Mensheviks largely maintained that Russia had the right to defend herself against Germany, although Julius Martov (a prominent Menshevik), now on the left of his group, demanded an end to the war and a settlement on the basis of national self-determination, with no annexations or indemnities. These staggering losses played a definite role in the mutinies and revolts that began to occur. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, the RSDLP was founded in 1898 in Belarus’ capital of Minsk. They were led by Vladimir Lenin and a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented. Lenin did not have any direct role in the revolution and due to his personal security he was hiding. However, Napoleon overthrows Snowball as Stalin overthrew Trotsky and Napoleon takes over the farm the animals live on. In Finland, Lenin had worked on his book State and Revolution and continued to lead his party, writing newspaper articles and policy decrees. This resulted in a growing criticism of the government, including an increased participation of workers in revolutionary parties. In August, poor and misleading communication led General Lavr Kornilov, the recently appointed Supreme Commander of Russian military forces, to believe that the Petrograd government had already been captured by radicals, or was in serious danger thereof. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. He campaigned for an immediate end of Russia's participation in the war, granting land to the peasants, and providing bread to the urban workers. Critics on the Right have long argued that the financial and logistical assistance of German intelligence via their key agent, Alexander Parvus was a key component as well, though historians are divided, since there is little evidence supporting that claim. Beach, Blue, Red Beach, and Green Beach. Their attitudes became known as the Zimmerwald Left. Miliukov gives his 'Is this stupidity or treason?' Nevertheless, Kerensky still faced several great challenges, highlighted by the soldiers, urban workers, and peasants, who claimed that they had gained nothing by the revolution: The political group that proved most troublesome for Kerensky, and would eventually overthrow him, was the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin. Bolshevik majority in. Lvov resigns and asks Kerensky to become Prime Minister and form a new government. George Orwell's classic novella Animal Farm is an allegory of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath. Cuba's revolution contributed to escalating tensions between the United States and USSR during Cold War, such as the CIA's failed Bay of Pigs Invasion by Cuban exiles in April 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962.  The Government firmly denounced the rebellions and labelled the requests as a reminder of the Social Revolutionaries, a political party that was popular among Soviets before Lenin, but refused to cooperate with the Bolshevik Army. Conditions became increasingly difficult to afford food and physically obtain it. There were Several factors that led to the Russian Revolution in 1905 (i) Tsar’s Autocratic rule was not tolerable now. An immediate cause of the February/March revolution in Russia was: Lack of bread which led to riots. The soldiers were dissatisfied and demoralised and had started to defect. By 1916, however, the situation had improved in many respects. The Bolsheviks' role in stopping the attempted coup further strengthened their position. [nb 3]. At the same time, rising prices led to demands for higher wages in the factories, and in January and February 1916, revolutionary propaganda, in part aided by German funds, led to widespread strikes. Kerensky was: German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. The center-left was well represented, and the government was initially chaired by a liberal aristocrat, Prince Georgy Yevgenievich Lvov, a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party (KD). The effective power of the Provisional Government was challenged by the authority of an institution that claimed to represent the will of workers and soldiers and could, in fact, mobilize and control these groups during the early months of the revolution – the Petrograd Soviet Council of Workers' Deputies. This created a new 'proletariat' which, due to being crowded together in the cities, was much more likely to protest and go on strike than the peasantry had been in previous times. Second Congress of Soviets: Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk out in protest against the previous day's events. Among them, in order of release date: Media related to Russian Revolution of 1917 at Wikimedia Commons, 20th-century revolution leading to the downfall of the Russian monarchy, This article is about the revolution that began in 1917. The Petrograd Mensheviks agreed to join despite the objections of their leaders abroad. During this chaotic period, there were frequent mutinies, protests and strikes. The revolution ultimately led to the establishment of the future Soviet Union as an ideocracy; however, the establishment of such a state came as an ideological paradox, as Marx's ideals of how a socialist state ought to be created were based on the formation being natural and not artificially incited (i.e. Since the Age of Enlightenment, Russian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and the rectitude of democratic representation. "Writing the History of the Russian Revolution after the Fall of Communism. The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire, commencing with the abolition of the monarchy in 1917 and concluding in 1923 with the Bolshevik establishment of the Soviet Union at the end of the Civil War. ", Cuba experienced its own communist revolution as well, known as the Cuban Revolution, which began in July 1953 under the leadership of revolutionary Fidel Castro. , Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party, it has been argued that since Lenin was not present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace, it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution, merely spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist state, to practice soviet democracy on a national and international scale.  By 10 March [O.S. At the beginning of February, Petrograd workers began several strikes and demonstrations. In February 1917, striking workers elected deputies to represent them and socialist activists began organizing a citywide council to unite these deputies with representatives of the socialist parties. Tsar Nicholas was blamed for all of these crises, and what little support he had left began to crumble. [nb 3], This vision of the Romanov monarchy left him unaware of the state of his country. By the spring of 1915, the army was in steady retreat, which was not always orderly; desertion, plundering, and chaotic flight were not uncommon. The "communist revolution" was led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party followers. There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. The Revolutionary Military Committee established by the Bolshevik party was organizing the insurrection and Leon Trotsky was the chairman.